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임용 2차 대비 Keyword 정리(김준식 선생님) -구유형

관리자 | 2014.12.01 13:33 | 조회 2264
2차 대비 Key Word 정리
 
◎ Theories of Second Language Acquisition
  • Input Hypothesis
    - Language acquisition takes place when the student understand a message in the language containing a structure that is one step in advance of that learner's current level of competence.
    - Speaking is a result of acquisition.
    - If input is understood, and there is enough of it, the necessary grammar is automatically provided.
    - The requirement of optimal input
      ① comprehensible
      ② interesting and relevant
      ③ not grammatically sequenced
      ④ supplied as i +1
      ⑤ delivered in an environment where students are "off the defensive"
  • Affective Filter Hypothesis
    - a low or weak affective filter to allow the input "in"
  • Natural Order Hypothesis
    - Grammatical structures are required in a predictable order.
  • Monitoring Hypothesis
    - Although spontaneous speech originates in the "acquired system", what has been learned may be used as a monitor to edit speech if the L2 learner has the time and the inclination to focus on the accuracy of the message.
  • Output Hypothesis
    - Opportunities to produce language are important for acquisition.
    - "notice the gap" principle : Students' language improve when they notice the gap between their won production and that of the native speakers with whom they are interacting.
  • Interaction Hypothesis
    - Conversational interaction is an essential, if not sufficient, condition for second language acquisition.
    - Focusing more on the question of how input could be made comprehensible.
    - Interactional modification makes input comprehensible.
    - Types of the Interactional Modification
      ① comprehension check : any expression! designed to establish whether the speaker's own preceding utterance has been understood by the listener
      ② clarification request : any expression! that elicits clarification of the preceding utterance
      ③ confirm!ation check : any expression! immediately following the preceding speaker's utterance intended to confirm! that the utterance was understood or heard correctly
 
◎ Language Analysis
  • Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
    - A way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in a second language learning situation.
    - The major source of error in the production or reception of a second language is the native language.
    - One can account for errors by considering differences between the L1 and the L2.
    - Errors are assumed to be the result of transfer from learner's first language.
  • Hierarchy of Difficulty
    - Transfer (level 0) : No difference or contrast is present between two languages.
    - Coalescence (level 1) : Two items in the native language become coalescent into one item in the target language
    - Underdifferentiation (leve 2) : An item in the native language is absent in the target language.
    - Reinterpretation (level 3) : An item that exists in the native language is give a new shape or distribution.
    - Overdifferentiation (level 4) : A new item entirely, bearing little if any similarity to the native language item, must be learned.
    - Split (level 5) : One item in the native language becomes two or more in the target language, requiring the learner to make a new distinction.
  • Interlanguage
    - An intermediate system that is located somewhere between the learner's native language and the target language, but governed by its own unique and coherent internalized rule system.
  • Error Analysis
    - Sources of errors
       ① Interlingual transfer
       ② Intralingual transfer
       ③ Context of learning
       ④ Communication strategies
  • Feedback on errors in the classroom
    - Explicit Correction : The explicit provision to the correct form.
    - Recast : The teacher's reformulation of all or part of a student's utterance, minus the error.
               An utterance that rephrases an utterance by changing one or more of its sentence components while still referring to its central meaning.
    - Clarification Request : Indication to students either that their utterance has been misunderstood by the teacher or that the utterance is ill-formed in some way.
    - Metalinguistic Feedback : Indicating that the student's utterance has some grammatical problems by using metalinguistic terms.
    -  Elicitation : Techniques that teachers use to directly elicit the correct forms from the student.
    -  Repetition : The teacher's repetition, in isolation, of the student's erroneous utterance.
  • Discourse Analysis
    - Locutionary Act :
    - Illocutionary Act :
    - Perlocutionary Act :
  • Cohesion and Coherent
    - Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical relationships between the different elements of a text.
    - Coherence refers to the relationships which link the meanings of utterances in a discourse or of the sentences in a text.
  • Conversional Maxim
    - Quantity : Speakers should be as informative as is required.
    - Quality : To say something that they believe corresponds to the reality.
    - Relevance : To say something that is relevant to what has been said before.
    - Manner : Speakers should be brief and orderly, and avoid obscurity and ambiguity.
 
◎ What Affects in Learning?
  • Learning Styles
    - Field Dependence vs Field Independence
       : known as cognitive styles
       : how people learn rather than what they learn
     
Field Dependence
① are unable to perceive elements as separate from their background or environment.
② global learners, learn holistically rather than discretely.
③ perceive the whole picture, the larger view.
Field Independence
① perceive the field as separate from the surrounding environment.
② analytic learners, learn discretely rather than holistically.
③ distinguish, concentrate, analyze
  • Ambiguity Tolerance
    - the degree to which you are cognitively willing to tolerate ideas and propositions that run counter to your own belief system or structure of knowledge.
  • Strategy
    - Learning Strategies
       ① Metacognitive Strategies are used to plan, monitor and eval!uate a learning task.
       ② Cognitive Strategies involve learners interacting and manipulating what is to be learned.
       ③ Social / Affective Strategies refer that learners interact with other persons or 'use affective control to assist learning'
  • Communication Strategies
    - strategies that learners use to make themselves understood and to maintain a conversation despite gaps in knowledge of the second language
       ① Avoidance Strategy
         a. lexical avoidance
         b. phonological avoidance
         c. topic avoidance
       ② Compensatory Strategy
         a. Prefabricated pattern : Using memorized stock phrases usually for "survival" purpose.
         b. Code-switching : Using a L1 word with L1 pronunciation while speaking in L2.
         c. Circumlocution : Describing or examplifying the target object of action.
         d. Approximation : Using an alternative term which express the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible.
         e. Literal translation : Translating L1 into L2 based on the meaning of L1.
         f. Time-gaining :
 
◎ Affective Domains
  • how to lower inhibition
    - to play games
    - to do role play
    - to sing songs
    - to use plenty of group works
    - to laugh with students
    - to have students share their fears in small groups
  • Motivation
    - probably the most frequently used catch-all term for explaining the success or failure of virtually any complex task
    - factors that energize behavior and give it direction
    - to motivate students,
      ① Teachers are enabler, not rewarders.
      ② Learners need to develop autonomy, not dependence.
      ③ Help learners to take charge of their own learning through setting some personal goals and utilizing learning strategies.
      ④ Learner-centered, cooperative teaching is intrinsically motivation.
      ⑤ Content-based activities and courses are intrinsically motivating.
      ⑥ Test, with some special attention from the teacher, can be intrinsically motivating.
      ⑦ Teachers should offer interesting, meaningful and challenging tasks in order for students to get self-reward and to be intrinsically motivated.
    - Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation    
Intrinsic motivation
You are doing something because you want to do it.
Extrinsic motivation
You are doing something when other influences push you to do it.
  • Cultural Aspects.
    - Critical Incidents : Descriptions of difficult or awkward situations in which cultural norms or values cause communication to break down between members of different cultures.
    - Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis : Both thought and language are determined by culture.
 
◎ Teaching Method.
  ● Traditional approach
    • Grammar Translation Method
      - Have students translate from target language texts to native language.
    • Direct Method
      - Use spoken language in situations with no native-language translation.
    • Audio-lingual Method
      - Conduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice.
    • Cognitive Approach
      - Do inductive/deductive grammar exercises.
 ● Innovative Approach
    • Community Language Learning
      - Lower students' inhibition which prevents them from learning the target language.
    • Suggestopedia
      - Desuggest limitations : teach lengthy dialogues through musical accompaniment, playful practice, and the arts.
    • Silent Way
      - Remain silent in order to subordinate teaching to learning. Focus student attention; provide meaningful practice.
    • Total Physical Response
    • The Natural Approach
      - Delay speaking until students are ready; making meaning clear through actions and visual.
 ● Communicative Approach
    • Communicative Language Teaching (by Brown)
      ① Classroom goals are focused on all of the components of communicative competence. Goals therefore must interwine the organizational aspects of language with the pragmatic.
      ② Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes.
      ③ Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles underlying communicative techniques. At times fluency may have to take on more import!ance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language use.
      ④ Students in a communicative class ultimately have to use the language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts outside the classroom.
      ⑤ Students are given opportunities to focus on their own learning process through an understanding of their own styles of learning and through the development of appropriate strategies for autonomous learning.
    • Content-based Instruction
      - Engage students in learning other subject matter, tasks, or in problem-solving around issues in their lives.
    • Theme-based Instruction
      - Based on learners' interests, provide lots of activities such as discussions, projects and simulation games.
    • The Whole Language Approach
      - Calls for language to be regarded holistically rather than as pieces.
    • Experiential Language Learning
      - Engage learners in concrete experiences and let them learn by doing.
  ● Communicative Competence
    - Grammatical competence : the degree to which the language user has mastered the linguistic code, including knowledge of vocabulary, rules of pronunciation and spelling, word formation, and sentence structure.
    - Sociolinguistic competence : the extent to which the second language can be used or understood appropriately in various contexts to convey specific communicative functions.
    - Discourse competence : the ability to combine ideas to achieve cohesion in form and coherence in thought.
    - Strategic competence : the use of verbal and nonverbal communication strategies to compensate for gaps in the language user's knowledge of the code or for breakdown in communication because of performance factors.
◎ Syllabus Design
  • Grammatical Syllabus
    - One that is organized around grammatical items.
  • Lexical Syllabus
    - One that identifies a target vocabulary to be taught normally arranged according to lexical levels.
  • Functional Syllabus
    - One that is organized around communicative functions such as requesting, complaining, suggesting, agreeing.
    - Mastery of individual functions will result in overall communicative ability.
    - Focus on the use of the language rather than linguistic form.
  • Situational syllabus
    - One that is organized around the language needed for different situations such as at the airport or at a hotel in which learner will use the language and the typical communicative acts and language used in that setting.
  • Task-based Syllabus (Task-based Instruction)
    - One that is organized around tasks that students will complete in the target language. A task is an activity or goal that is carried out using language.
    - Based on tasks that have been specially designed to facilitate second language learning and one in which tasks or activities are the basic units of syllabus design.
    - A basis for syllabus planning.
    - Example of tasks
      ① Jigsaw task : involves learners in combining different pieces of information to form a whole.
      ② Information gap : Tasks in which on student or group of students has one set of information and another student or group has a complementary set of information. They must negotiate and find out what the other party's information is in order to complete an activity.
      ③ Problem Solving : Students are given a problem and a set of information. They must arrive at a solution to the problem. There is generally a single resolution of the outcome.
      ④ Decision Making : Students are given a problem for which there a number of possible outcomes and they must choose one through negotiation and discussion.
      ⑤ Opinion Exchange : Learners engage in discussion and exchange of ideas. They do not need to reach agreement.
 
◎ In the Classroom
  • Display Question
    - Display questions are those to which we know the answer.
  • Referential Question
    - Referential questions are those to which we do not know the answer.
  • Pair work
    - Advantages of pair work activities
      ① increasing the amount of speaking time for each student
      ② promoting learner independence
      ③ sharing responsibilities
      ④ allowing teachers to work with one or two pairs while the other students continue working
      ⑤ quick and easy to organize
  • Group Work
    - teacher's role in group work activity
      ① Select activities carefully
      ② Work out the instructions for an activity carefully
      ③ Present the activity to the class
      ④ Monitor the students' performance
      ⑤ Provide feedback
    - Advantages of group work activities
      ① Group work activity generates interactive language.
      ② Group work activity offers an embracing affective climates.
      ③ Group work activity is a step toward individualizing instruction.
      ④ Group work activity promotes learner responsibility and autonomy.
    - Disadvantages of group work activities
      ① It is impossible for a teacher to control all small groups.
      ② Because some students can not correct other students' errors, their errors could be fossilized.
      ③ Students tend to be dependent on their mother tongue when they miscommunicate each other.
  • Controlled Classroom Activities
    - Warm-up : Mimes, dance, songs, jokes, play. This activity gets the students simulated, relaxed, motivated, attentive, or otherwise engaged and ready for the lesson. It does not necessarily involve use of the target language.
    - Setting : Focusing in on lesson topic. Teacher directs attention to the topic by verbal or nonverbal evocation of the context relevant to the lesson by questioning or miming or picture presentation, possible by tape recording of situations and people.
    - Organizational : Structuring of lesson or class activities includes disciplinary action, organization of class furniture and seating, general procedures for class interaction and performance, structure and purpose of lesson, etc.
    - Content explanation : Grammatical, phonological, lexical, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, or any other aspects of language.
    - Drill : Typical language activity involving fixed patterns of teacher prompting and student responding, usually with repetition, substitution, and other mechanical alterations.
    - Dictation : Student writing down orally presented text.
    - Meaningful drill : Drill activity involving responses with meaningful choices, as in reference to different information.
  • Semi-controlled Classroom Activities
    - Brainstorming : A form of preparation for the lesson which involves free, undirected contributions by the students and teacher on a given topic, to generate multiple associations without linking them; no explicit analysis or interpretation by the teacher.
    - Information exchange : Task involving two-way communication as in information-gap exercises, when one or both parties must share information to achieve some goal.
    - Wrap-up : Brief teacher or student produced summary of point and/or items that have been practiced or learned.
  • Free Activities
    - Role play : explained above
    - Games : explained above
    - Report : Report of student-prepared exposition on books, experiences, project work, without immediate stimulus, and elaborated on according to student interests.
    - Problem solving : explained above
    - Drama : Planned dramatic rendition of play, skit, story, etc.
    - Simulation : Activity involving complex interaction between groups and individuals based on simulation of real-life actions and experiences.
    - Interview : A student is directed to get information from another student or students.
    - Discussion : Debate or other form of grouped discussion of specified topic, with or without specified sides prearranges.
  • Mixed level classes
    - Teachers who have mixed level classes find that the same tasks can be done quite adequately by learners at different developmental stages. In mixed level pairs or groups, weaker students can benefit by hearing what better students say, and better students too, improve, through having to paraphrase, and explain. However, varying groupings is probably a good idea as it stops students paired with slow learners becoming frustrated. The frequency with which you change groups around depends on the age, status, needs and feelings of the learners themselves. If some pairs or groups finish the task or planning stage long before the others, first check they have not done so by missing something out! They could join up with another pair who have finished, and tell each other what they did, or ask each other to check their writing. Alternatively, they could write a list of phrases they and the other students might find useful.
  • Talkative students
    - Try asking a talkative student to be the group chairperson, whose job is to make sure everyone else gets equal chances to talk.
  • Controlling large classes
    - Problem 1 : Learning to speak a language often involves higher levels of noise than is usual in other lessons 
      ① Choose tasks that make greater use of writing as a form of communication or teacher-led tasks, with short intervals of quiet pair work. Always give a time limit and never wait for everyone to finish.
      ② Teachers can always stop the task and ask every pair to write down silently in English three things they have found out or decided so far.
    - problem 2 : The tasks teachers are setting are too difficult for some students 
      ① Start with easy tasks. Once students can manage simple tasks mainly in the target language, set a slightly more complex one as a challenge.
    - problem 3 : Some students may speak in native language.
      ① Tell students how many minutes they are given to speak in target language. Then the teacher could start setting targets, say three minutes with no mother tongue. Gradually increase the target time.
    - Talking to other teachers about how they cope in their classes is helpful.
  • Textbook Adaptation
    - Rationale : The most obvious and most common form of material support for language instruction comes through textbooks. Mosk likely the teacher's first concern will not be to choose a textbook, but rather to find creative use for the textbook that has been handed to the classroom.
  • Textbook Eval!uation
    - When choosing or eval!uating textbooks, teachers must consider
      ① Goals of the course
      ② Background of the students
      ③ Language skills
      ④ General content
         a. validity - does the textbook accomplish what is purports to?
         b. authenticity of language
         c. appropriateness and currency of topics, situation, and contexts.
         d. proficiency level - is it pitched for the right level?
      ⑤ Quality of practical material
         a. exercise - is there a variety from controlled to free?
         b. clarity of direction
         c. active participation of students
         d. grammatical and other linguistic explanation
         e. review material
      ⑥ Sequencing
      ⑦ Vocabulary
      ⑧ General sociolinguistic factors
  • Media Lessons
    - A framework for structuring media lessons
      ① Information and motivation stage
         : the topic and relevant background information are presented
      ② Input stage
         : the teacher ensures comprehension of the item or items presented
      ③ Focus stage
         : the students practice the tasks and are provided with guided opportunities to manipulate items until they feel comfortable and confident
      ④ Transfer stage
         : students are given opportunities to offer personal comments or share experiences relating to the given context
      ⑤ Feedback stage
         : audio or video recordings of students are used to guide the assessment of the students' performance
 
◎ Computer Assisted Language Learning
  • Benefits of CALL (rationale)
    - opportunity for learners to notice language forms
    - a means for providing optimal modified input to learners
    - multimodal (visual, auditory, written) practice
    - immediate, personalized feedback
    - individualization in a large class
    - self-pacing
    - private space to make mistakes
    - convenient mode for [distance] teacher feedback
    - collaborative projects
    - variety in the resources available and learning styles used
    - exploratory learning with large amounts of language(corpus) data
    - real-life skill building in computer use
    - the fun factor
  • Using Computers in the language classroom
    - Drills
      : Computers are useful in delivering drills for practice as they are tireless in their delivery.
    - Computer Adaptive testing
      : As test takers respond to test items in CAT, the test adapts itself to each user by choosing subsequent test items based on the test taker's performance on preceding items.
    - Corpora and Concordancing
      : Computers are expert at storing large amounts of information. A concordance is a type of index that searches for occurrences of a word or combinations of words, parts of words, punctuation, affixes, phrases, or structures within a corpus, and can show the immediate context.
    - Computer-mediated communication
      ① Email : Using email, learners can communicate with peers, teachers and native speakers.
      ② Chatlines : Chatting through the screen.
      ③ Moo : They are typically text-based virtual spaces
 
◎ Teaching Listening
  • Principles for teaching listening skills
    ① Include a focus on listening in an integrated-skills course.
    ② Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating.
    ③ Utilize authentic language and contexts.
    ④ Carefully consider the form of listers' responses.
    ⑤ Encourage the development of listening strategies.
    ⑥ Include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniques.
 
  • What makes listening
  difficult?
  • What can teachers do to help students master the
    difficulties?
 - Clustering
 - Redundancy
 - Reduced forms
 - Performance variables
 - Colloquial language
 - Rate of delivery
 - Stress, rhythm, intonation
 - Interaction
 S/he can at least provide the students with suitable listening materials, background and linguistic knowledge, enabling skills, pleasant classroom conditions, and useful exercises to help them discover listening strategies.
 
  (Find some more details in P403, Build-Up)
   • Process of listening
   
bottom-up
 • The listener pays close attention to every detail of the language input.
 • Listeners build understanding by starting with the smallest units of the acoustic message, then combined into words, which together make up phrases, clauses, and sentences.
top-down
 • The listener's ability to bring prior information to bear on the task of understanding the heard language.
 • Emphasize the use of previous knowledge in processing a text rather than  relying upon the individual sounds and words.
interactive
 • Involves both bottom-up and top-down processing. (ex : dictogloss)
  • Dictogloss (Interactive listening)
   - Rationale : The dictogloss technique provides a useful bridge between bottom-up and top-down listening.
    ① Learners are primarily concerned with identifying individual elements in the texts. (bottom-up)
    ② During the small group discussions, some of top-down strategies might be employed. (top-down)
   - Procedures of dictogloss
    ① Preparation :
    ② Dictation :
    ③ Reconstruction :
    ④ Analysis and correction : (practice to write down each procedure in English)
  • Listening Stages
  
stages
possible activities
rationales
Pre
 • Discuss a relevant picture
 • Discuss relevant experiences
 • Associate ideas with the topic
 • Associate vocabulary with the topic
 • Predict information about the topic
 • Write questions about the topic
 • Activate the prior knowledge
 • Promote the top-down process
 • Offer students the linguistic
   information
While
 • Identify the exact topic
 • Note two to four pieces of information
 • Answer questions
 • Complete sentences
 • Complete a table, map, or picture
 • Learners will need to be involved in an
   authentic purpose for listening and
   encouraged to attend to the text more
   intensively or more extensively.
 • To confirm! learners' expectations and to
   help them to get the gist of the content
   as it relates to the written text.
Post
 • Give opinions
 • Relate similar experiences
 • Role play a similar interaction
 • Write a brief report
 • Write a similar text
 • Debate the topic
 • Take students into a more intensive
   phase of study in which aspects of
   bottom-up listening are practised.
 • Involve integration with other skills
   through development of the topic into
   reading, speaking, or writing activities.
 
  • Listening Techniques (remember two things each at least, but not necessarily to do discretely)

beginners
Intermediate level (Advance)
bottom-up
 • Discriminate between intonation
   contours in sentences
 • Discriminate between phonemes
 • Selective listening for morphological
   endings
 • Select details from the text
 • Listen for normal sentence word
   order
 • Recognize fast speech forms
 • Find the stressed syllable
 • Recognize words with reduced
   syllables
 • Recognize words as they are linked
   in the speech stream
top-down
 • Discriminate between emotional
   reactions
 • Get the gist of a sentence
 • Recognize the topic
 • Analyze discourse structure to
   suggest effective listening strategies
 • Listen to identify the speaker or the
   topic
 • Listen to eval!uate themes and
   motives
 • Find main ideas and supporting
   details
interactive
 • Build a semantic network of word
   associations
 • Recognize a familiar word and relate
   it to a category
 • Follow directions
 • Discriminate between registers of
   speech and tones of voice
 • Use knowledge of reduced forms to
   clarify the meaning of an utterance
 • Listen to confirm! your expectations
   
 
◎ Teaching Reading
  • Criteria for choosing reading texts for students.
    ① suitability of content : material that students will find interesting, enjoyable, challenging, and appropriate for their goals in learning English
    ② exploitability : a text that facilitates the achievement of certain language and content goals, that is exploitable for instructional tasks and techniques, and that is integratable with other skills
    ③ readability : a text with lexical and structural difficulty that will challenge students without overwhelming them.
  • The content schemata : general world knowledge, sociocultural knowledge, and topic knowledge.
  • The formal schemata : the knowledge we have of the overall structure of some speech event.
 
• Process of reading  
bottom-up
 • The reader begins with the smallest elements and builds up to
   comprehension of what is being read.
top-down
 • The reader uses background knowledge, makes predictions, and searches
   the text to confirm! or reject the predictions that are made.
 • Comprehension resides in the reader, not the textbook.
interactive
 • Involves both bottom-up and top-down processing.
  • Skimming and Scanning
Skimming
 • When skimming, we go through the reading material quickly in order to get the gist of it, to know how it is organized, or to get an idea of the tone or the intention of the writer
Scanning
 • When scanning, we only try to locate specific information and often we do not even follow the linearity of the passage to do so. We simply let our eyes wander over the text until we find a specific information.
  • Reading Stages
stages
possible activities
rationales
Pre
 • Guess the topic of the text from the
   heading, illustrations, etc.
 • Brainstorm around a topic word on
   the board.
 • Predict what the text will say.
 • Write questions that may be answered
  by the text.
 • To motivate the learners to want to
   read the text
 • To activate or build the students'
   background knowledge about the
   subject
 • To provide any language preparation
   that might be needed for coping with
   the passage
While
 • Scan for two to four items of information.
 • Skim for the general idea.
 • Answer questions.
 • Complete sentences.
 • Ask each other questions.
 • To help students to understand the
   specific content
 • To perceive the rhetorical structure of
   the text
Post
 • Discuss what was interesting or new
   in the text.
 • Discuss or debate the topic of the
   text if it is controversial.
 • Do tasks on the language of structure
   of the text.
 • Summarize the text either orally or in
   writing.
 • To review the content
 • To consolidate what has been read by 
   relating the new information to the
   learner's knowledge, interests, and
   opinions
 • To integrate the new information from
   the text with what the students
   already know
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